Get PDF Social Values; Men; Sex Education

Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Social Values; Men; Sex Education file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Social Values; Men; Sex Education book. Happy reading Social Values; Men; Sex Education Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Social Values; Men; Sex Education at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Social Values; Men; Sex Education Pocket Guide.

Values influence decisions of an individual about sexual relationships, friends, money and work. Relationships are stronger if the two individuals share similar values. Values are taught to children by giving example. Children many change their values later in life depending upon their education, personal experience, social changes and scientific advances. Working women, intercaste marriages, limited family size, gender equality are some of the positive changes in the value system. The CDC reports that homosexual youths who experience high levels of social rejection are six times more likely to have high levels of depression and eight times more likely to have attempted suicide CDC Queer theory is a perspective that problematizes the manner in which we have been taught to think about sexual orientation.

Queer theorists reject the dominant gender schema and the dichotomization of sexual orientations into two mutually exclusive outcomes, homosexual or heterosexual. Rather, the perspective highlights the need for a more flexible and fluid conceptualization of sexuality—one that allows for change, negotiation, and freedom.

This mirrors other oppressive schemas in our culture, especially those surrounding gender and race black versus white, male versus female. In the end, queer theory strives to question the ways society perceives and experiences sex, gender, and sexuality, opening the door to new scholarly understanding. Throughout this chapter, we have examined the complexities of gender, sex, and sexuality. Differentiating between sex, gender, and sexual orientation is an important first step to a deeper understanding and critical analysis of these issues.

Understanding the sociology of sex, gender, and sexuality will help to build awareness of the inequalities experienced by subordinate groups such as women, homosexuals, and transgendered individuals. Sex denotes biological characteristics differentiating males and females, while gender denotes social and cultural characteristics of masculine and feminine behaviour. Sex and gender are not always synchronous. Individuals who strongly identify with the opposing gender are considered transgendered. Gender Children become aware of gender roles in their earliest years.

They come to understand and perform these roles through socialization, which occurs through four major agents: family, education, peer groups, and mass media. Socialization into narrowly prescribed gender roles results in the stratification of males and females. Each sociological perspective offers a valuable view for understanding how and why gender inequality occurs in our society. Sex and Sexuality When studying sex and sexuality, sociologists focus their attention on sexual attitudes and practices, not on physiology or anatomy.

Norms regarding gender and sexuality vary across cultures. In general, Canada tends to be less conservative than the United States in its sexual attitudes. As a result, homosexuals still continue to face opposition and discrimination in most major social institutions but discrimination based on sexual orientation is legally prohibited in the Canadian constitution, gays and lesbians are able to get married in Canada, and school boards across the country have instituted anti-bullying policies to prevent the targeting of LGBT students.

The Difference between Sex and Gender 1. Gender 6. Which of the following is the best example of a gender stereotype? Which of the following is the best example of the role peers play as an agent of socialization for school-aged children? Sex and Sexuality What Western country is thought to be the most liberal in its attitudes toward sex? Which theoretical perspective stresses the importance of regulating sexual behaviour to ensure marital cohesion and family stability? Gender For more gender-related statistics, see the U. New York: Routledge.

Ling, Lisa. Weiss, Debra C. Case, M. Cowan, Sharon. Diamond, Milton. Kinsey, Alfred C. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. Poasa, Kris. Ryle, Robyn. Questioning Gender: A Sociological Exploration. Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. New York: Columbia University Press. Statistics Canada. Taylor, Catherine and Tracey Peter.

Every class in every school: The first national climate survey on homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia in Canadian schools. Final report. Retrieved February 13, www. Gender Coltrane, Scott and Michele Adams. Gender and Families. Davis, Donald M. Etaugh, Clair and Judith Bridges.

Farrington, K. Boss, W. Doherty, R. LaRossa, W. Schumm and S. New York: Plenum. Hawke, Lucy A. Hochschild, Arlie R. New York: Viking. Kane, Eileen. Kilbourne, Jean.

What is sexual orientation?

New York: Touchstone Publishing. Lips, Hillary M. McInturff, Kate. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Mead, George Herbert.

Murdock, George Peter and Douglas R. National Institute of Mental Health. Unpublished Epidemiological Catchment Area Analyses. Nellie McClung Foundation. Parsons, Talcott. NY: Free Press. Pincus, Fred. New York, NY: Routledge. Raffaelli, Marcela and Lenna L. Ready, Diane. Risman, Barbara and Danette Johnson-Sumerford. Sadker, David and Myra Sadker. Sanday, Peggy Reeves. Women at the Center: Life in a Modern Matriarchy. Seem, Susan Rachael and Diane M. Smith, Dorothy. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Smith, Stacy. Staples, Robert and Leanor Boulin Johnson.

Black Families at the Crossroads: Challenges and Prospects. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Thorne, Barrie. Gender Play: Girls and Boys in Schoo l. Broude, Gwen J.

Human Sexuality and Culture

New York, NY: Springer. Buss, David M.

January Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Devor, Aaron. How Many Genders? A Survey of Canadian Adults. Fisher, T. Moore and M. Foucault, Michel. NY: Vintage Books. Grose, Thomas K. Kinsman, Gary. Buse, and Mercedes Steedman eds. In Whose National Security? Canadian State Surveillance and the Creation of Enemies. Toronto: Between the Lines Press. Milhausen, Robin and Edward Herold. Perceptions of University Women.

What is gender identity?

Parsons, Talcott, Robert F. Family, Socialization, and Interaction Process. New York: Free Press. Pew Research Center. June 4. Potard, C. Courtois, and E. Epistemology of the Closet. Widmer, Eric D. Figure Skip to content Increase Font Size. Learning Objectives The Difference between Sex and Gender Define and differentiate between sex and gender Define and discuss what is meant by gender identity Understand and discuss the role of homophobia and heterosexism in society Distinguish the meanings of transgendered, transsexual, and homosexual identities Gender Explain the influence of socialization on gender roles in Canada Understand the stratification of gender in major North American institutions Describe gender from the view of each sociological perspective Sex and Sexuality Understand different attitudes associated with sex and sexuality Define sexual inequality in various societies Discuss theoretical perspectives on sex and sexuality.

Making Connections: Sociological Research Being Male, Being Female, and Being Healthy In , Broverman and Broverman conducted a groundbreaking study on the traits mental health workers ascribed to males and females. Section Quiz Sex Gender Both sex and gender None of the above 2. Gender identity Gender bias Sexual orientation Sexual attitudes 3. At infancy In early adolescence In early adulthood In late adulthood 4. Transgendered Transsexual A cross-dresser Homosexual 5. Which of following is correct regarding the explanation for transgenderism?

It is strictly biological and associated with chemical imbalances in the brain. It is a behaviour that is learned through socializing with other transgendered individuals. It is genetic and usually skips one generation. Currently, there is no definitive explanation for transgenderism. Women are typically shorter than men.

Sex Education: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)

Men do not live as long as women. Women tend to be overly emotional, while men tend to be level-headed. Men hold more high-earning, leadership jobs than women. Children can act however they wish around their peers because children are unaware of gender roles. Peers serve as a support system for children who wish to act outside of their assigned gender roles. Peers tend to reinforce gender roles by criticizing and marginalizing those who behave outside of their assigned roles. None of the above 8. Conflict theory Functionalism Feminist theory Symbolic interactionism 9.

Only women are affected by gender stratification. True False During half of our activities Only when it applies to our biological sex Only if we are actively following gender roles All of the time, in everything we do United States Sweden Mexico Ireland Compared to most Western societies, U.

Conservative Liberal Permissive Free Functionalism Conflict theory Symbolic interactionalism Queer theory. Short Answer The Difference between Sex and Gender Why do sociologists find it important to differentiate between sex and gender? What importance does the differentiation have in modern society? Think back to your childhood. Do you remember gender expectations being conveyed through the approval or disapproval of your playtime choices? Gender In what way do parents treat sons and daughters differently?


  • Sex education - Wikipedia!
  • River Rapids (Mallenford Mysteries)!
  • Sex and Sexuality.
  • 2. Americans see different expectations for men and women!
  • How To Get The Unlimited Happiness ( 1 ).
  • Why comprehensive sexuality education is important!

How do sons and daughters typically respond to this treatment? Additionally, women often perceive a disconnect between their personal experiences and the way the world is represented by society as a whole. Dorothy Smith referred to this phenomenon as bifurcated consciousness Smith Patriarchal perspectives and arrangements, widespread and taken for granted, are built into the relations of ruling.

As a result, not only do women find it difficult to find their experiences acknowledged in the wider patriarchal culture, their viewpoints also tend to be silenced or marginalized to the point of being discredited or considered invalid.

The key to teaching our children to value, respect and care for each other? Sex education

The men, however, do not experience the sense of bifurcated consciousness under this social structure that modern Canadian females encounter Sanday Symbolic interactionism aims to understand human behaviour by analyzing the critical role of symbols in human interaction. This is certainly relevant to the discussion of masculinity and femininity. Imagine that you walk into a bank, hoping to get a small loan for school, a home, or a small business venture.

If you meet with a male loan officer, you may state your case logically by listing all of the hard numbers that make you a qualified applicant as a means of appealing to the analytical characteristics associated with masculinity. If you meet with a female loan officer, you may make an emotional appeal by stating your good intentions as a means of appealing to the caring characteristics associated with femininity. Because the meanings attached to symbols are socially created and not natural, and fluid, not static, we act and react to symbols based on the current assigned meaning.

Furthermore, the word gay as it refers to a homosexual carried a somewhat negative and unfavourable meaning 50 years ago, but has since gained more neutral and even positive connotations. These shifts in symbolic meaning apply to family structure as well. In , when only Today, when a majority of women with preschool-aged children are part of the paid workforce Sociologist Charles H. When people perform tasks or possess characteristics based on the gender role assigned to them, they are said to be doing gender.

In , Broverman and Broverman conducted a groundbreaking study on the traits mental health workers ascribed to males and females. When asked to name the characteristics of a female, the list featured words such as unaggressive, gentle, emotional, tactful, less logical, not ambitious, dependent, passive, and neat. The list of male characteristics featured words such as aggressive, rough, unemotional, blunt, logical, direct, active, and sloppy Seem and Clark Later, when asked to describe the characteristics of a healthy person not gender specific , the list was nearly identical to that of a male.

Chapter Gender, Sex, and Sexuality – Introduction to Sociology – 1st Canadian Edition

This study uncovered the general assumption that being female is associated with being somewhat unhealthy or not of sound mind. This concept seems extremely dated, but in , Seem and Clark replicated the study and found similar results. Again, the characteristics associated with a healthy male were very similar to that of a healthy genderless adult. The list of characteristics associated with being female broadened somewhat but did not show significant change from the original study Seem and Clark This interpretation of feminine characteristic may help us one day better understand gender disparities in certain illnesses, such as why one in eight women can be expected to develop clinical depression in her lifetime National Institute of Mental Health In the area of sexuality, sociologists focus their attention on sexual attitudes and practices, not on physiology or anatomy.

Studying sexual attitudes and practices is a particularly interesting field of sociology because sexual behaviour is a cultural universal. Throughout time and place, the vast majority of human beings have participated in sexual relationships Broude Each society, however, interprets sexuality and sexual activity in different ways. Many societies around the world have different attitudes about premarital sex, the age of sexual consent, homosexuality, masturbation, and other sexual behaviours that are not consistent with universally cultural norms Widmer, Treas, and Newcomb At the same time, sociologists have learned that certain norms like disapproval of incest are shared among most societies.

Likewise, societies generally have norms that reinforce their accepted social system of sexuality. Societies that value monogamy, for example, would likely oppose extramarital sex. Individuals are socialized to sexual attitudes by their family, education system, peers, media, and religion. Historically, religion has been the greatest influence on sexual behaviour in most societies, but in more recent years, peers and the media have emerged as two of the strongest influences, particularly with North American teens Potard, Courtois, and Rusch Let us take a closer look at sexual attitudes in Canada and around the world.

Cross-national research on sexual attitudes in industrialized nations reveals that normative standards differ across the world. For example, several studies have shown that Scandinavian students are more tolerant of premarital sex than are North American students Grose A study of 37 countries reported that non-Western societies—like China, Iran, and India—valued chastity highly in a potential mate, while western European countries—such as France, the Netherlands, and Sweden—placed little value on prior sexual experiences Buss Even among Western cultures, attitudes can differ.

For example, according to a 33,person survey across 24 countries, 89 percent of Swedes responded that there is nothing wrong with premarital sex, while only 42 percent of Irish responded this way. From the same study, 93 percent of Filipinos responded that sex before age 16 is always wrong or almost always wrong, while only 75 percent of Russians responded this way Widmer, Treas, and Newcomb Sexual attitudes can also vary within a country. For instance, 45 percent of Spaniards responded that homosexuality is always wrong, while 42 percent responded that it is never wrong; only 13 percent responded somewhere in the middle Widmer, Treas, and Newcomb Of industrialized nations, Sweden is thought to be the most liberal when it comes to attitudes about sex, including sexual practices and sexual openness.

The country has very few regulations on sexual images in the media, and sex education, which starts around age six, is a compulsory part of Swedish school curricula. It would appear that Sweden is a model for the benefits of sexual freedom and frankness. However, implementing Swedish ideals and policies regarding sexuality in other, more politically conservative, nations would likely be met with resistance. In the international survey noted above, 12 percent of Canadians stated that premarital sex is always wrong, compared to 29 percent of Americans.

The average among the 24 countries surveyed on this question was 17 percent. Fifty-five percent of Canadians compared to 71 percent of Americans condemned sex before the age of 16, 68 percent compared to 80 percent condemned extramarital sex, and 39 percent compared to 70 condemned homosexuality Widmer, Treas, and Newcomb North American culture is particularly restrictive in its attitudes about sex when it comes to women and sexuality.

In fact, there is a popular notion that men think about sex every seven seconds. Research, however, suggests that men think about sex an average of 19 times per day, compared to 10 times per day for women Fisher, Moore, and Pittenger Belief that men have—or have the right to—more sexual urges than women creates a double standard. Ira Reiss, a pioneer researcher in the field of sexual studies, defined the double standard as prohibiting premarital sexual intercourse for women but allowing it for men Reiss This standard has evolved into allowing women to engage in premarital sex only within committed love relationships, but allowing men to engage in sexual relationships with as many partners as they wish without condition Milhausen and Herold Due to this double standard, a woman is likely to have fewer sexual partners in her life time than a man.

According to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC survey, the average year-old woman has had three opposite-sex sexual partners while the average year-old man has had twice as many Centers for Disease Control In a study of 1, Canadians over the age of 18, men had had an average of Sociologists representing all three major theoretical perspectives study the role that sexuality plays in social life today. Scholars recognize that sexuality continues to be an important factor in social hierarchies and relations of power and that the manner in which sexuality is constructed has a significant effect on perceptions, interactions, health, and outcomes.

When it comes to sexuality, functionalists stress the importance of regulating sexual behaviour to ensure marital cohesion and family stability. Since functionalists identify the family unit as the most integral component in society, they maintain a strict focus on it at all times and argue in favour of social arrangements that promote and ensure family preservation. Functionalists such as Talcott Parsons et al.

Social norms surrounding family life have, traditionally, encouraged sexual activity within the family unit marriage and have discouraged activity outside of it premarital and extramarital sex. From a functionalist point of view, the purpose of encouraging sexual activity in the confines of marriage is to intensify the bond between spouses and to ensure that procreation occurs within a stable, legally recognized relationship. This structure gives offspring the best possible chance for appropriate socialization and the provision of basic resources. From a functionalist standpoint, homosexuality cannot be promoted on a large-scale as an acceptable substitute for heterosexuality.

If this occurred, procreation would eventually cease.

Chapter 12. Gender, Sex, and Sexuality

Thus, homosexuality, if occurring predominantly within the population, is dysfunctional to society. This criticism does not take into account the increasing legal acceptance of same-sex marriage, or the rise in gay and lesbian couples who choose to bear and raise children through a variety of available resources. It is of course not the case that homosexuals are unable to marry or procreate with members of the opposite sex as this has occurred throughout history.

From a critical perspective, sexuality is another area in which power differentials are present and where dominant groups actively work to promote their worldview as well as their economic interests. Homosexuality was criminalized in Canada in Throughout the s and s, homosexuals were even treated as national security risks and hundreds of gays and lesbians lost their civil service jobs or were purged from the military. Thousands were kept under surveillance Kinsman It was not until that the Criminal Code was amended to relax the laws against homosexuality.

It was not until that same-sex couples were given the right to marry. Critical sociology asks why homosexuality, and other types of sexuality, have been the subject of persecution by the dominant sexual majority. Sexuality is caught up in the relationship between knowledge and power. The powerful normative constraints that emerged, based largely on the 19th century scientific distinction between natural and unnatural forms of sexuality, led to the legacy of closeted sexuality and homophobic violence that remains to this day. They depended on how scientific types of knowledge, which defined the homosexual as an unnatural type of person, were combined with emerging forms of medical, psychiatric, legal, and state power.

However, having a gender or sexual identity only appears natural to the degree that one fits within the dominant gender schema. The dominant gender schema is an ideology that, like all ideologies, serves to perpetuate inequalities in power and status. This schema states that: 1 sex is a biological characteristic that produces only two options, male or female, and 2 gender is a social or psychological characteristic that manifests or expresses biological sex.

Again, only two options exist, masculine or feminine. No person can be neither. No person can be both. For many people this is natural. It goes without saying. This occurs first of all by the actions of external authorities and experts who define those who do not fit as either mistakes of nature or as products of failed socialization and individual psychopathology.

It is also thrown into question by the actions of peers and family who respond with concern or censure when a girl is not feminine enough or a boy is not masculine enough. Moreover, the ones who do not fit also have questions. They may begin to wonder why the norms of society do not reflect their sense of self, and thus begin to feel at odds with the world. For critical sociology, these are matters defined in the context of power relationships in society. Interactionists focus on the meanings associated with sexuality and with sexual orientation.

Since femininity is devalued in North American society, those who adopt such traits are subject to ridicule; this is especially true for boys or men. Just as masculinity is the symbolic norm, so too has heterosexuality come to signify normalcy. For the homosexual, these transitions are fraught with difficulty. To what degree does the same process apply to heterosexuals? Although the idea of coming out as a heterosexual, or as a masculine man or a feminine woman, might seem absurd, this absurdity is grounded in the norms of heteronormative society that are so deeply entrenched as to make them appear natural.

Interactionists are also interested in how discussions of homosexuals often focus almost exclusively on the sex lives of gays and lesbians; homosexuals, especially men, may be assumed to be hypersexual and, in some cases, deviant. Interactionism might also focus on the slurs used to describe homosexuals. This subsequently affects how homosexuals perceive themselves. Constant exposure to derogatory labels, jokes, and pervasive homophobia would lead to a negative self-image, or worse, self-hate.

The CDC reports that homosexual youths who experience high levels of social rejection are six times more likely to have high levels of depression and eight times more likely to have attempted suicide CDC Queer theory is a perspective that problematizes the manner in which we have been taught to think about sexual orientation. Queer theorists reject the dominant gender schema and the dichotomization of sexual orientations into two mutually exclusive outcomes, homosexual or heterosexual. Rather, the perspective highlights the need for a more flexible and fluid conceptualization of sexuality—one that allows for change, negotiation, and freedom.

This mirrors other oppressive schemas in our culture, especially those surrounding gender and race black versus white, male versus female. In the end, queer theory strives to question the ways society perceives and experiences sex, gender, and sexuality, opening the door to new scholarly understanding. Throughout this chapter, we have examined the complexities of gender, sex, and sexuality. Differentiating between sex, gender, and sexual orientation is an important first step to a deeper understanding and critical analysis of these issues. Understanding the sociology of sex, gender, and sexuality will help to build awareness of the inequalities experienced by subordinate groups such as women, homosexuals, and transgendered individuals.

Sex denotes biological characteristics differentiating males and females, while gender denotes social and cultural characteristics of masculine and feminine behaviour. Sex and gender are not always synchronous. Individuals who strongly identify with the opposing gender are considered transgendered. Gender Children become aware of gender roles in their earliest years.

They come to understand and perform these roles through socialization, which occurs through four major agents: family, education, peer groups, and mass media. Socialization into narrowly prescribed gender roles results in the stratification of males and females. Each sociological perspective offers a valuable view for understanding how and why gender inequality occurs in our society. Sex and Sexuality When studying sex and sexuality, sociologists focus their attention on sexual attitudes and practices, not on physiology or anatomy. Norms regarding gender and sexuality vary across cultures.

In general, Canada tends to be less conservative than the United States in its sexual attitudes. As a result, homosexuals still continue to face opposition and discrimination in most major social institutions but discrimination based on sexual orientation is legally prohibited in the Canadian constitution, gays and lesbians are able to get married in Canada, and school boards across the country have instituted anti-bullying policies to prevent the targeting of LGBT students. The Difference between Sex and Gender 1. Gender 6. Which of the following is the best example of a gender stereotype?

Which of the following is the best example of the role peers play as an agent of socialization for school-aged children? Sex and Sexuality What Western country is thought to be the most liberal in its attitudes toward sex? Which theoretical perspective stresses the importance of regulating sexual behaviour to ensure marital cohesion and family stability? Gender For more gender-related statistics, see the U. New York: Routledge.

Ling, Lisa. Weiss, Debra C. Case, M. Cowan, Sharon. Diamond, Milton. Kinsey, Alfred C. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs. Poasa, Kris. Ryle, Robyn. Questioning Gender: A Sociological Exploration. Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. New York: Columbia University Press. Statistics Canada. Taylor, Catherine and Tracey Peter.

Every class in every school: The first national climate survey on homophobia, biphobia, and transphobia in Canadian schools. Final report. Retrieved February 13, www. Gender Coltrane, Scott and Michele Adams. Gender and Families. Davis, Donald M. Etaugh, Clair and Judith Bridges. Farrington, K.